Wool Fibre | Properties of Wool Fibre

Wool Fibre | Physical Properties of Wool | Chemical Properties of Wool

Wool Fibre:

Wool is a protein fiber. It is extracted from sheep. There are various types of wool. Merino wool is the best wool fiber because its length is reasonable. Fineness is good here and in most cases, it has a natural crimp.

Wool fibre

Fig: Wool fiber

Properties of Wool Fibre:

There are some key properties of wool which are pointed out below:

  1. Length,
  2. Fineness,
  3. Elastic property,
  4. Effect of heat,
  5. Cross-sectional shape,
  6. Strength and extension,
  7. Appearance,
  8. Effect of chemical,
  9. Effect of biological agents,
  10. End-use.

All the above properties have explained in the following:

1. Length:

The length of wool fiber varies from 2 inches to twelve-inch depending on the type of fiber and the interval length of time of collection.

2. Fineness:

Generally, the longer the fiber coarser the fiber. Here, fineness varies from 3-15 dtex that is corser than cotton fiber.

3. Elastic property:

Wool is the best natural fiber in respect of good recovery from deformation.

4. Effect of heat:

Burns with burning hair smell with a specific sound.

5. Cross-sectional shape:

It is roughly circular or elliptical in cross-section. Some fibers are solid and some fibers have small intermittent holes which are called Kemp fibers.

6. Strength and extension:

Wool is a weak fiber. Its tenacity varies from 1 to 15 g/dtex but very high extension at break which is 35%.

7. Appearance:

It is characterized by crimp and scales. Due to crimp, it is bulkier and wormer. Due to scale, it has differential friction which is not present in cotton. Due to scales and extensibility, its feeling property is good. Color varies depending n the types of wool.

8. Effect of chemical:

In the case of water, moisture regain of wool is 19%, and when wet strength reduces about 20%.

In the case of alkali, alkali degrades the wool fiber, changes color, and reduces strength. Treatment of wool in 5% NaOH solution dissolves the fiber.

In the case of acid, wool is safe acid. In carbonizing wool, 5% sulfuric acid solution is used to remove vegetable and cellulosic materials.

In the case of solvent, wool is safe in the solvent also. Hence dry cleaning is popular for woolen garments.

9. Effect of biological agents:

It’s attacked by a moth, wind, rain, and sunlight degrades the wool.

10. End-use:

Critical care is needed for the woolen garments because it may shrink during laundering or washing.

-Written by

Mayedul Islam
Merchandiser at Fashion Xpress Buying House.
Badda, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Email: mayedul.islam66@gmail.com

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